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And even when the database design is being performed by experienced professionals with sufficient time and a solid logical model, it is very easy for design flaws to creep into the database. This is especially the case for larger and more complex databases required to support mission critical applications.
Of course, the first step in constructing a physical database should be transforming the logical design using best practices. The transformation consists of the following:
But a simple transformation will not result in a complete and correct physical database design – it is merely the first step. And design flaws can be introduced even during such a transformation.
The process of normalizing your data should be conducted during the logical design phase, but sometimes mistakes are made during the logical modeling process. In simple terms, normalization is the process of identifying the one best place where each fact belongs. A normalized design minimizes data redundancy and optimizes data structures by systematically and properly placing data elements into the appropriate groupings.